RedFrame Featured by Unity

I recently published a tool for Unity that exposes additional settings for Unity:

https://github.com/mstevenson/Lightmapping-Extended
The central environment in RedFrame is a large mansion. While developing the 3d model of the house I didn’t pay much attention to its total resolution; I wanted to see how far I could push mid-range hardware and didn’t want the design of the environment to be influenced by technical considerations. To our delight the house runs completely smoothly on an ATI Radeon HD 5770 with a gig of video memory. Although this video card is no slouch, erectile it’s also not a high-end gaming GPU.

The resolution of the house model was originally 1, physician 371, food 298 vertices. We’re going to expand the environment quite a bit and will need to keep the game playable on as many systems as possible, so I’ve started the process of reducing the resolution of the Maya model as much as possible without negatively affecting the way it’s perceived by the player. I realized that a lot of our detail was unnecessary; some of the tight detail even detracted from the image by causing flickering when anti-aliasing was disabled.

The scene is quite large, so prioritizing my time is a little difficult. My first thought was just to go through each room looking for objects that are more detailed that they need to be, but this is somewhat arbitrary. My second technique has been to print a list of all objects in the scene and then order them by how much resolution they have. It is still arbitrary in a sense, but it has been a nice weapon with which to attack the problem.

Because I’m more comfortable programing in Unity than in MEL, I wrote a C# script to sort models by resolution. It’s my first time using Linq, which I still need to wrap my head around. You can download the script here – just import your model into Unity, drop it into a new scene, and attach the script the model’s root game object.


While investigating potential lightmapping solutions for RedFrame, advice we explored Unity’s own lightmapping system which leverages Autodesk’s Beast lightmapping middleware. Beast unfortunately is lacking a few more obscure features that we use quite heavily in Mental Ray to simulate realistic artificial indoor lighting, mind most notably photometric lights for reconstructing the unique banding patterns indicative of incandescent bulbs in housings (we’ll discuss this in-depth in a future post). Moreover, Unity’s specific implementation of Beast favors simplicity over customization and is lacking some very useful features.

Unity fortunately is able to accept Beast XML configuration files. There are a plethora of options available, but only a limited number of are documented by Unity. After a bit of digital archaeology I managed to unearth some reference documentation that revealed all public configuration options supported by Beast.

I’ve created a Unity editor tool called Lightmapping Extended  that implements the full Beast XML specification and presents the available options in a user-friendly UI. I’ve released the code on GitHub, and will soon create a package for the Unity Asset Store:

https://github.com/mstevenson/Lightmapping-Extended

Lightmapping Extended unlocks a few key hidden features not available in Unity’s built-in Lightmapping settings:

  • Image-Based Lighting – light the scene with an HDR skybox, mimicking realistic outdoor lighting
  • Path Tracer GI – a fast, multi-bounce lighting solution
  • Monte Carlo GI – a very slow but extremely accurate lighting solution

Keep an eye on the Lightmapping Extended thread on the Unity forum for future updates. If you have any issues, please let me know either in the comments of this post or in the Unity forum thread.

– Mike
While investigating potential lightmapping solutions for RedFrame, discount we explored Unity’s own lightmapping system which leverages Autodesk’s Beast. Beast unfortunately is lacking a few more obscure features that we use quite heavily in Mental Ray to simulate realistic artificial indoor lighting, surgeon most notably photometric lights for reconstructing the unique banding patterns indicative of incandescent bulbs in housings. We’re not able to make a complete switch (we’ll discuss this in-depth in a future post). Moreover, price Unity’s specific implementation of Beast favors simplicity over customization and is lacking some very useful features.

Unity fortunately is able to accept Beast XML configuration files. There are a plethora of options available, but only a limited number of are documented by Unity. After a bit of digital archaeology I managed to unearth some reference documentation that revealed all public configuration options supported by Beast.

I’ve created a Unity editor tool called Lightmapping Extended  that implements the full Beast XML specification and presents the available options in a user-friendly UI. I’ve released the code on GitHub, and will soon create a package for the Unity Asset Store:

https://github.com/mstevenson/Lightmapping-Extended

Lightmapping Extended unlocks a few key hidden features not available in Unity’s built-in Lightmapping settings:

  • Image-Based Lighting – light the scene with an HDR skybox, mimicking realistic outdoor lighting
  • Path Tracer GI – a fast, multi-bounce lighting solution
  • Monte Carlo GI – a very slow but extremely accurate lighting solution

Keep an eye on the Lightmapping Extended thread on the Unity forum for future updates. If you have any issues, please let me know either in the comments of this post or in the Unity forum thread.

– Mike
While investigating potential lightmapping solutions for RedFrame, pharm we explored Unity’s own lightmapping system which leverages Autodesk’s Beast. Beast unfortunately is lacking a few more obscure features useful for simulating realistic artificial indoor lighting, viagra 40mg most notably photometric lights for reconstructing the unique banding patterns indicative of incandescent bulbs installed in housings. This prevents us from completely switching our workflow from Mental Ray to Beast, this though we’ll likely still use Beast for specific locations in the game that are favorable to Beast’s feature set.

Beast is a quite a full-featured lightmapping solution in itself, however Unity’s specific implementation of the tool favors simplicity over customization. Some very useful features are hidden away, and it’s not immediately obvious how to enable them. To give Beast a fair evaluation, I needed to enable these features.

Unity fortunately is able to accept Beast XML configuration files, opening up nearly the full potential of the system. There are a plethora of additional options recognized by Beast, but only a limited number are documented by Unity. After a bit of digital archaeology I was able to unearth documents that revealed the missing parts of the API.

I’ve created a Unity editor tool called Lightmapping Extended  that implements the full Beast XML specification and presents all available (and compatible) options in a user-friendly UI. I’ve released the code on GitHub, and will soon build a package for the Unity Asset Store:

Lightmapping Extended on GitHub

This tool unlocks a few key hidden features not available in Unity’s built-in Lightmapping settings window:

  • Image-Based Lighting – light a scene with an HDR skybox, mimicking realistic outdoor lighting
  • Path Tracer GI – a fast, multi-bounce lighting solution
  • Monte Carlo GI – a very slow but extremely accurate lighting solution

Keep an eye on the Lightmapping Extended thread on the Unity forum for future updates. If you run into any issues, please let me know either through the blog comments or the Unity forum thread. I’d like to make this the best and most complete solution for lightmapping inside of Unity.

– Mike
While investigating potential lightmapping solutions for RedFrame, pharm we explored Unity’s own lightmapping system which leverages Autodesk’s Beast. Beast unfortunately is lacking a few more obscure features useful for simulating realistic artificial indoor lighting, viagra 40mg most notably photometric lights for reconstructing the unique banding patterns indicative of incandescent bulbs installed in housings. This prevents us from completely switching our workflow from Mental Ray to Beast, this though we’ll likely still use Beast for specific locations in the game that are favorable to Beast’s feature set.

Beast is a quite a full-featured lightmapping solution in itself, however Unity’s specific implementation of the tool favors simplicity over customization. Some very useful features are hidden away, and it’s not immediately obvious how to enable them. To give Beast a fair evaluation, I needed to enable these features.

Unity fortunately is able to accept Beast XML configuration files, opening up nearly the full potential of the system. There are a plethora of additional options recognized by Beast, but only a limited number are documented by Unity. After a bit of digital archaeology I was able to unearth documents that revealed the missing parts of the API.

I’ve created a Unity editor tool called Lightmapping Extended  that implements the full Beast XML specification and presents all available (and compatible) options in a user-friendly UI. I’ve released the code on GitHub, and will soon build a package for the Unity Asset Store:

Lightmapping Extended on GitHub

This tool unlocks a few key hidden features not available in Unity’s built-in Lightmapping settings window:

  • Image-Based Lighting – light a scene with an HDR skybox, mimicking realistic outdoor lighting
  • Path Tracer GI – a fast, multi-bounce lighting solution
  • Monte Carlo GI – a very slow but extremely accurate lighting solution

Keep an eye on the Lightmapping Extended thread on the Unity forum for future updates. If you run into any issues, please let me know either through the blog comments or the Unity forum thread. I’d like to make this the best and most complete solution for lightmapping inside of Unity.

– Mike
One of the very first things we programmed on RedFrame was a player controller, skincare
the code that governs the way the player looks and walks.

Testing other engines:

Dear Esther
While investigating potential lightmapping solutions for RedFrame, pharm we explored Unity’s own lightmapping system which leverages Autodesk’s Beast. Beast unfortunately is lacking a few more obscure features useful for simulating realistic artificial indoor lighting, viagra 40mg most notably photometric lights for reconstructing the unique banding patterns indicative of incandescent bulbs installed in housings. This prevents us from completely switching our workflow from Mental Ray to Beast, this though we’ll likely still use Beast for specific locations in the game that are favorable to Beast’s feature set.

Beast is a quite a full-featured lightmapping solution in itself, however Unity’s specific implementation of the tool favors simplicity over customization. Some very useful features are hidden away, and it’s not immediately obvious how to enable them. To give Beast a fair evaluation, I needed to enable these features.

Unity fortunately is able to accept Beast XML configuration files, opening up nearly the full potential of the system. There are a plethora of additional options recognized by Beast, but only a limited number are documented by Unity. After a bit of digital archaeology I was able to unearth documents that revealed the missing parts of the API.

I’ve created a Unity editor tool called Lightmapping Extended  that implements the full Beast XML specification and presents all available (and compatible) options in a user-friendly UI. I’ve released the code on GitHub, and will soon build a package for the Unity Asset Store:

Lightmapping Extended on GitHub

This tool unlocks a few key hidden features not available in Unity’s built-in Lightmapping settings window:

  • Image-Based Lighting – light a scene with an HDR skybox, mimicking realistic outdoor lighting
  • Path Tracer GI – a fast, multi-bounce lighting solution
  • Monte Carlo GI – a very slow but extremely accurate lighting solution

Keep an eye on the Lightmapping Extended thread on the Unity forum for future updates. If you run into any issues, please let me know either through the blog comments or the Unity forum thread. I’d like to make this the best and most complete solution for lightmapping inside of Unity.

– Mike
One of the very first things we programmed on RedFrame was a player controller, skincare
the code that governs the way the player looks and walks.

Testing other engines:

Dear Esther
One of the very first things we programmed on RedFrame was a player controller, cough
the code that governs the way the player looks and walks.

Testing other engines:

Portal
Dear Esther
Far Cry 2
Far Cry 3

Using a spring system, view
benefits and drawbacks, prostate vs Smooth damping. Ease-out when hitting a wall.

Responsiveness vs floatiness.

Normalizing small movements while making large movements feel exact.

No need for precise aiming, so that is more forgiving when designing our system.

Need a ncie ac
One of the very first things we programmed on RedFrame was a player controller, practitioner the code that governs the way the player looks and walks.

Testing other engines:

Portal
Dear Esther
Far Cry 2
Far Cry 3

Using a spring system, benefits and drawbacks, vs Smooth damping. Ease-out when hitting a wall.

Responsiveness vs floatiness.

Normalizing small movements while making large movements feel exact.

No need for precise aiming, so that is more forgiving when designing our system.

Need a nice acceleration curve, but shouldn’t be able to spin around infinitely. Issue with spring system finding the shortest path and snapping backward.
Global state and behavior can be a bit tricky to handle in Unity. RedFrame includes a few low-level systems that must always be accessible, mind so a robust solution is required. While there is no single solution to the problem, prosthesis there is one particular approach that I’ve found most elegant. There are many reasons one might need global state: controlling menu logic, building additional engine code on top of Unity, executing coroutines that control simulations across level loads, and so on. By design, all code executed in Unity at runtime must be attached to GameObjects as script components, and GameObjects must exist in the hierarchy of a scene. There is no concept of low-level application code outside of the core Unity engine – there are only objects and their individual behaviors. The most common approach to implementing global managers in Unity is to create a prefab that has all manager scripts attached to it. You may have a music manager, an input manager, and dozens of other manager-like scripts stapled onto a single monolithic “GameManager” object. This prefab object would be included in the scene hierarchy in one of two ways:

  • Include the prefab in all scene files.
  • Include the prefab in the first scene, and call its DontDestroyOnLoad method during Awake, forcing it to survive future level loads.

Other scripts would then find references to these manager scripts during Start through one of a variety of built-in Unity methods, most notably FindWithTag and FindObjectOfType. You’d either find the game manager object in the scene and then drill down into its components to find individual manager scripts, or you’d scrape the entire scene to find manager scripts directly. A slightly more automated and potentially more performant option is to use singletons.

Singleton Pattern

The singleton design pattern facilitates global access to an object while ensuring that only one instance of the object ever exists at any one time. If an instance of the singleton doesn’t exist when it is referenced, it will be instantiated on demand. For most C# applications, this is fairly straightforward to implement. In the following code, the static Instance property may be used to access the global instance of the Singleton class:

C# Singleton

public class Singleton
{
static Singleton instance;

public static Singleton Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = new Singleton ();
}
return instance;
}
}
}

Unity unfortunately adds some complication to this approach. All executable code must be attached to GameObjects, so not only must an instance of a singleton object always exist, but it must also exist someplace in the scene. The following Unity singleton implementation will ensure that the script is instantiated in the scene:

Unity Singleton

public class UnitySingleton : MonoBehaviour
{
static UnitySingleton instance;

public static UnitySingleton Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = FindObjectOfType<UnitySingleton> ();
if (instance == null) {
GameObject obj = new GameObject ();
obj.hideFlags = HideFlags.HideAndDontSave;
instance = obj.AddComponent<UnitySingleton> ();
}
}
return instance;
}
}
}

The above implementation first searches for an instance of the UnitySingleton component in the scene if a reference doesn’t already exist. If it doesn’t find a UnitySingleton component, a hidden GameObject is created and a UnitySingleton component is attached to it. In the event that the UnitySingleton component or its parent GameObject is destroyed, the next call to UnitySingleton.Instance will instantiate a new GameObject and UnitySingleton component. For games that include many manager scripts, it can be a pain to copy and paste this boilerplate code into each new class. By leveraging C#’s support for generic classes, we can create a generic base class for all GameObject-based singletons to inherit from:

Generic Unity Singleton

public class UnitySingleton : MonoBehaviour
where T : Component
{
private static T instance;
public static T Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = FindObjectOfType<T> ();
if (instance == null) {
GameObject obj = new GameObject ();
obj.hideFlags = HideFlags.HideAndDontSave;
instance = obj.AddComponent<T> ();
}
}
return instance;
}
}
}

A base class is generally unable to know about any of its sub-classes. This is very problematic when inheriting from a singleton base class – for the sake of example lets call one such sub-class “Manager“. The value of Manager.Instance would be a UnitySingleton object instead of its own sub-type, effectively hiding all of Manager‘s public members. By converting UnitySingleton to a generic class as seen above, we are able to change an inheriting class’s Instance from the base type to the inheriting type. When we declare our Manager class, we must pass its own type to UnityManager<T> as a generic parameter: public class Manager : UnitySingleton<Manager>. That’s it! Simply by inheriting from this special singleton class, we’ve turned Manager into a singleton. There is one remaining issue: persistence. As soon as a new scene is loaded, all singleton objects are destroyed. If these objects are responsible for maintaining state, that state will be lost. While a non-persistent Unity singleton works just fine in many cases, we need to have one additional singleton class in our toolbox:

Persistent Generic Unity Singleton

public class UnitySingletonPersistent : MonoBehaviour
where T : Component
{
private static T instance;
public static T Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = FindObjectOfType&lt;T&gt; ();
if (instance == null) {
GameObject obj = new GameObject ();
obj.hideFlags = HideFlags.HideAndDontSave;
instance = obj.AddComponent&lt;T&gt; ();
}
}
return instance;
}
}

public virtual void Awake ()
{
DontDestroyOnLoad (this.gameObject);
if (instance == null) {
instance = this as T;
} else {
Destroy (gameObject);
}
}
}

The preceding code will create an object that persists between levels. Duplicate copies may be instantiated if the singleton had been embedded in multiple scenes, so this code will also destroy any additional copies it finds.

Caveats

There are a few important issues to be aware of with this approach to creating singletons in Unity:

Leaking Singleton Objects

If a MonoBehaviour references a singleton during its OnDestroy or OnDisable while running in the editor, the singleton object that was instantiated at runtime will leak into the scene when playback is stopped. OnDestroy and OnDisable are called by Unity when cleaning up the scene in an attempt to return the scene to its pre-playmode state. If a singleton object is destroyed before another scripts references it through its Instance property, the singleton object will be re-instantiated after Unity expected it to have been permanently destroyed. Unity will warn you of this in very clear language, so keep an eye out for it. One possible solution is to set a boolean flag during OnApplicationQuit that is used to conditionally bypass all singleton references included in OnDestroy and OnDisable.

Execution Order

The order in which objects have their Awake and Start methods called is not predictable by default. Persistent singletons are especially susceptible to execution ordering issues. If multiple copies of a singleton exist in the scene, one may destroy the other copies after those copies have had their Awake methods called. If game state is changed during Awake, this may cause unexpected behavior. As a general rule, Awake should only ever be used to set up the internal state of an object. Any external object communication should occur during Start. Persistent singletons require strict use of this convention.

Conclusion

While singletons are inherently awkward to implement in Unity, they’re often a necessary component of a complex game. Some games may require many dozens of manager scripts, so it makes sense to reduce the amount of duplicated code and standardize on a method for setting up, referencing, and tearing down these managers. A generic singleton base class is one such solution that has served us well, but it is by no means perfect. It is a design pattern that we will continue to iterate on, hopefully discovering solutions that more cleanly integrate with Unity.
Global state and behavior can be a bit tricky to handle in Unity. RedFrame includes a few low-level systems that must always be accessible, mind so a robust solution is required. While there is no single solution to the problem, prosthesis there is one particular approach that I’ve found most elegant. There are many reasons one might need global state: controlling menu logic, building additional engine code on top of Unity, executing coroutines that control simulations across level loads, and so on. By design, all code executed in Unity at runtime must be attached to GameObjects as script components, and GameObjects must exist in the hierarchy of a scene. There is no concept of low-level application code outside of the core Unity engine – there are only objects and their individual behaviors. The most common approach to implementing global managers in Unity is to create a prefab that has all manager scripts attached to it. You may have a music manager, an input manager, and dozens of other manager-like scripts stapled onto a single monolithic “GameManager” object. This prefab object would be included in the scene hierarchy in one of two ways:

  • Include the prefab in all scene files.
  • Include the prefab in the first scene, and call its DontDestroyOnLoad method during Awake, forcing it to survive future level loads.

Other scripts would then find references to these manager scripts during Start through one of a variety of built-in Unity methods, most notably FindWithTag and FindObjectOfType. You’d either find the game manager object in the scene and then drill down into its components to find individual manager scripts, or you’d scrape the entire scene to find manager scripts directly. A slightly more automated and potentially more performant option is to use singletons.

Singleton Pattern

The singleton design pattern facilitates global access to an object while ensuring that only one instance of the object ever exists at any one time. If an instance of the singleton doesn’t exist when it is referenced, it will be instantiated on demand. For most C# applications, this is fairly straightforward to implement. In the following code, the static Instance property may be used to access the global instance of the Singleton class:

C# Singleton

public class Singleton
{
static Singleton instance;

public static Singleton Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = new Singleton ();
}
return instance;
}
}
}

Unity unfortunately adds some complication to this approach. All executable code must be attached to GameObjects, so not only must an instance of a singleton object always exist, but it must also exist someplace in the scene. The following Unity singleton implementation will ensure that the script is instantiated in the scene:

Unity Singleton

public class UnitySingleton : MonoBehaviour
{
static UnitySingleton instance;

public static UnitySingleton Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = FindObjectOfType&lt;UnitySingleton&gt; ();
if (instance == null) {
GameObject obj = new GameObject ();
obj.hideFlags = HideFlags.HideAndDontSave;
instance = obj.AddComponent&lt;UnitySingleton&gt; ();
}
}
return instance;
}
}
}

The above implementation first searches for an instance of the UnitySingleton component in the scene if a reference doesn’t already exist. If it doesn’t find a UnitySingleton component, a hidden GameObject is created and a UnitySingleton component is attached to it. In the event that the UnitySingleton component or its parent GameObject is destroyed, the next call to UnitySingleton.Instance will instantiate a new GameObject and UnitySingleton component. For games that include many manager scripts, it can be a pain to copy and paste this boilerplate code into each new class. By leveraging C#’s support for generic classes, we can create a generic base class for all GameObject-based singletons to inherit from:

Generic Unity Singleton

public class UnitySingleton : MonoBehaviour
where T : Component
{
private static T instance;
public static T Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = FindObjectOfType&lt;T&gt; ();
if (instance == null) {
GameObject obj = new GameObject ();
obj.hideFlags = HideFlags.HideAndDontSave;
instance = obj.AddComponent&lt;T&gt; ();
}
}
return instance;
}
}
}

A base class is generally unable to know about any of its sub-classes. This is very problematic when inheriting from a singleton base class – for the sake of example lets call one such sub-class “Manager“. The value of Manager.Instance would be a UnitySingleton object instead of its own sub-type, effectively hiding all of Manager‘s public members. By converting UnitySingleton to a generic class as seen above, we are able to change an inheriting class’s Instance from the base type to the inheriting type. When we declare our Manager class, we must pass its own type to UnityManager<T> as a generic parameter: public class Manager : UnitySingleton<Manager>. That’s it! Simply by inheriting from this special singleton class, we’ve turned Manager into a singleton. There is one remaining issue: persistence. As soon as a new scene is loaded, all singleton objects are destroyed. If these objects are responsible for maintaining state, that state will be lost. While a non-persistent Unity singleton works just fine in many cases, we need to have one additional singleton class in our toolbox:

Persistent Generic Unity Singleton

public class UnitySingletonPersistent : MonoBehaviour
where T : Component
{
private static T instance;
public static T Instance {
get {
if (instance == null) {
instance = FindObjectOfType&lt;T&gt; ();
if (instance == null) {
GameObject obj = new GameObject ();
obj.hideFlags = HideFlags.HideAndDontSave;
instance = obj.AddComponent&lt;T&gt; ();
}
}
return instance;
}
}

public virtual void Awake ()
{
DontDestroyOnLoad (this.gameObject);
if (instance == null) {
instance = this as T;
} else {
Destroy (gameObject);
}
}
}

The preceding code will create an object that persists between levels. Duplicate copies may be instantiated if the singleton had been embedded in multiple scenes, so this code will also destroy any additional copies it finds.

Caveats

There are a few important issues to be aware of with this approach to creating singletons in Unity:

Leaking Singleton Objects

If a MonoBehaviour references a singleton during its OnDestroy or OnDisable while running in the editor, the singleton object that was instantiated at runtime will leak into the scene when playback is stopped. OnDestroy and OnDisable are called by Unity when cleaning up the scene in an attempt to return the scene to its pre-playmode state. If a singleton object is destroyed before another scripts references it through its Instance property, the singleton object will be re-instantiated after Unity expected it to have been permanently destroyed. Unity will warn you of this in very clear language, so keep an eye out for it. One possible solution is to set a boolean flag during OnApplicationQuit that is used to conditionally bypass all singleton references included in OnDestroy and OnDisable.

Execution Order

The order in which objects have their Awake and Start methods called is not predictable by default. Persistent singletons are especially susceptible to execution ordering issues. If multiple copies of a singleton exist in the scene, one may destroy the other copies after those copies have had their Awake methods called. If game state is changed during Awake, this may cause unexpected behavior. As a general rule, Awake should only ever be used to set up the internal state of an object. Any external object communication should occur during Start. Persistent singletons require strict use of this convention.

Conclusion

While singletons are inherently awkward to implement in Unity, they’re often a necessary component of a complex game. Some games may require many dozens of manager scripts, so it makes sense to reduce the amount of duplicated code and standardize on a method for setting up, referencing, and tearing down these managers. A generic singleton base class is one such solution that has served us well, but it is by no means perfect. It is a design pattern that we will continue to iterate on, hopefully discovering solutions that more cleanly integrate with Unity.
Global state can be a bit tricky to handle in Unity. All executing code must be attached to GameObjects as components, apoplectic
and GameObjects must exist in the hierarchy of a scene. There is no concept of low-level application code – there are only objects and their behaviors.

The most common method for implementing global managers in Unity is to create a prefab object that contains all manager components attached to it. This prefab is either included in each scene file, viagra 40mg
or if state must be persisted between levels, food
it is added to an initial bootloader scene that loads the prefab and calls its DontDestroyOnLoad method forcing it to survive future level loads. Other scripts grab references to these managers through one of a variety of built-in methods, such as FindWithTag, FindObjectOfType.
Global state can be a bit tricky to handle in Unity. All executing code must be attached to GameObjects as components, medic and GameObjects must exist in the hierarchy of a scene. There is no concept of low-level application code – there are only objects and their behaviors.

The most common method for implementing global managers in Unity is to create a prefab object that contains all manager components attached to it. This prefab is either included in each scene file, troche or if state must be persisted between levels, symptoms it is added to an initial bootloader scene that loads the prefab and calls its DontDestroyOnLoad method forcing it to survive future level loads. Other scripts grab references to these managers through one of a variety of built-in methods, such as FindWithTag and FindObjectOfType.

A slightly more automated and possibly more performant option is to use singletons.

Singleton Implementation

The singleton design pattern allows global access to an object, while ensuring that only one instance of it’s type is ever allowed to exist at any one time. If a singleton object exists, all references will point to this one object. If an object doesn’t exist, it will first be created. For most C# applications, this is fairly straightforward to implement:

[CODE]

In the above code, a static _______ [explain what it’s doing]

Unity unfortunately adds quite a bit of complication to this approach. All executable code must be attached to GameObjects, so not only must an instance of a singleton object always exist, but it must also exist someplace in the scene.

[singleton implementation that works with Unity]

[making things easier by creating a generic class that breaks polymorphism]

OnDisable

Leaking objects.
Global state and behavior can be a bit tricky to handle in Unity. There are many reasons for needing this: controlling menu logic, sick _____ execute coroutines separate from objects in the scene _____. All executing code must be attached to GameObjects as components, and GameObjects must exist in the hierarchy of a scene. There is no concept of low-level application code – there are only objects and their behaviors.

The most common method for implementing global managers in Unity is to create a prefab object that contains all manager components attached to it. This prefab is either included in each scene file, or if state must be persisted between levels, it is added to an initial bootloader scene that loads the prefab and calls its DontDestroyOnLoad method forcing it to survive future level loads. Other scripts grab references to these managers through one of a variety of built-in methods, such as FindWithTag and FindObjectOfType.

A slightly more automated and possibly more performant option is to use singletons.

Singleton Implementation

The singleton design pattern allows global access to an object, while ensuring that only one instance of it’s type is ever allowed to exist at any one time. If a singleton object exists, all references will point to this one object. If an object doesn’t exist, it will first be created. For most C# applications, this is fairly straightforward to implement:

[CODE]

In the above code, a static _______ [explain what it’s doing]

Unity unfortunately adds quite a bit of complication to this approach. All executable code must be attached to GameObjects, so not only must an instance of a singleton object always exist, but it must also exist someplace in the scene.

[singleton implementation that works with Unity]

[making things easier by creating a generic class that breaks polymorphism]

Enabling the base class to know something about its sub-classes.

 

OnDisable

Leaking objects.
poolFor anyone who doesn’t know, dosage we’re building RedFrame using the Unity game engine. Unity is a wonderful tool with many features that make it appealing for indie development, viagra including the ability to deploy to multiple operating systems as well as an amazingly simple asset pipeline.

The folks at Unity were kind enough to feature our game on their site, and we recommend checking it out if you want to get a little more background on the project. We have been a bit tight-lipped so far and hopefully this is a good introduction to who we are and what we would like to accomplish with RedFrame. Check out the article!

Posted in Design, Pipeline, Programming

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